Air-to-air and air-to-water heat pumps in a humid Nordic climate 
The aim of this study was to analyze if the information given on the Energy Labels of air source heat pumps give the consumer in Nordic countries sufficiently relevant information on energy performance. The methods used in the study are literature studies in open sources, browsing on the internet for product data available for consumers and interviews with relevant parties. The performance declared on the Energy Label is the performance during standardized conditions and exact agreement with the performance in a real installation is not to be expected. However, the Label should not give the consumer misleading information. During the study, deviations between the Energy Label and real performance could neither be confirmed nor dismissed, since very few results from field monitoring of air-source heat pumps in Nordic climates can be found in the open literature. However, the perception of over declaration of air-to-air heat pumps was strengthened. One main reason is probably that the heat pumps are declared and labelled for much lower capacities and warmer climate than the normal use in a Nordic climate. For air-to-water heat pumps, no results from field tests were found for products new enough to be energy labelled. Results for older heat pumps, showed in many cases performance as could be expected. However, several heat pumps performed worse than could be expected, especially in some countries with a more humid climate. When analyzing some of those installations in detail, non-optimal installations, resulting in very high heating water temperatures, that the back-up heater heats instead of the heat pump and large heat losses from storage tanks (not included in the measured SPF) were found to be the reasons. Recommendations from the study are: • To avoid that the air-to-air heat pumps are labelled for lower capacities than they are intended to be used for, it should not be allowed to state higher capacities in the promotion material than the Pdesign value. • To obtain as good performance as possible for an air-to-water heat pump in a real installation appropriate system design and control setting must be assured. Sufficient knowledge among the installers is critical. • More data from continuous field trials of air source heat pumps in Nordic climates, would be valuable. The study was performed by RISE on behalf of the Swedish Energy Agency within the Nordic cooperation project Nordsyn sponsored by the Nordic Council of Ministers.
--- Datum: 22.10.2019 Uhrzeit: 9:50 - 10:15 Uhr Ort: Saal Brüssel, NCC Mitte